Can Rabbits Eat Cardboard: Unveiling the Safety of Cardboard Boxes for Your Bunny

Rabbits are known for their love of chewing and may often be seen nibbling on cardboard boxes or other paper products. As a pet owner, it’s natural to wonder if this behavior is safe for your furry friend.

Can rabbits eat cardboard, and if so, is it a healthy option for them?

In this blog post, we’ll explore the question of whether or not rabbits can eat cardboard and provide some insights into why rabbits engage in this behavior.

We’ll also delve into the potential risks associated with cardboard consumption and provide some tips on how to ensure your rabbit is getting the proper nutrition they need to stay healthy and happy.

So, if you’re a rabbit owner or considering getting a rabbit as a pet, keep reading to learn more about the dos and don’ts of feeding your furry friend.

Understanding Rabbit Behavior

Chewing is a natural behavior for rabbits and serves various purposes, including keeping their teeth healthy and providing mental stimulation.

By understanding why rabbits chew, you can ensure their well-being and create a safe environment for them.

Rabbits have an inherent need to chew, as it helps to wear down their constantly growing teeth.

Providing appropriate chew toys can not only help maintain their dental health but also offer mental stimulation and alleviate boredom.

When rabbits are bored, they may start chewing on things they shouldn’t, like furniture, walls, or even cardboard.

Cardboard can be a useful material for your rabbit to chew on, but it’s essential to monitor their interaction with it.

Some rabbits may ingest the cardboard, which can cause digestive issues if consumed in large quantities.

Moreover, ensure that the cardboard is free of staples, tape, and ink to prevent any harm to your pet.

Since rabbit chewing is crucial for their mental and physical well-being, it’s essential to recognize signs of boredom in your rabbit.

A bored rabbit may become destructive, overweight, or even depressed. To combat boredom, provide a variety of toys to keep them entertained and mentally stimulated, like puzzle toys, balls, and wood chews.

Additionally, you can teach your rabbit tricks to keep their mind engaged and help improve your bond with them.

Understanding rabbit behavior also includes knowing their body language and communication methods.

Paying attention to your rabbit’s signals can help you create a happier and more trusting relationship.

If your rabbit seems afraid of you, recognizing their fear and taking steps to remedy it will result in a more harmonious and enjoyable bond for both you and your pet.

In conclusion, rabbit behavior plays a significant role in understanding their needs, especially concerning chewing and mental stimulation.

Providing safe and appropriate outlets for chewing, such as cardboard, and addressing their boredom positively impacts their overall well-being and strengthens your bond with your pet.

The Role of Cardboard in Rabbit’s Life

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Cardboard can play a significant role in the life of a rabbit, as it provides various benefits such as mental stimulation, physical exercise, and a safe chewing material.

Plain cardboard, like cardboard boxes or toilet paper rolls, is a common item to use as a chewing toy for rabbits.

One important aspect of owning a rabbit is providing appropriate chew toys to keep their teeth in good condition.

Rabbits’ teeth continually grow throughout their life, so they need to wear them down through chewing. Cardboard boxes are an excellent choice for rabbits to chew on, as it is a safe and affordable option.

When considering cardboard materials for your rabbit, opt for plain, uncolored cardboard without any print or glossy surfaces.

Colored or glossy cardboard may contain harmful chemicals or dyes that could be hazardous for rabbits if ingested.

Therefore, providing your rabbit with safe materials ensures they can enjoy their chewing activities without any health risks.

Not only do cardboard boxes serve as chew toys, but they also provide a great hiding spot and a place to play for rabbits.

Rabbits are prey animals, so they naturally seek places to hide in order to feel secure. Placing a cardboard box or two in their enclosure will give them such a safe environment and promote their overall well-being.

While you may have a multitude of rabbit chew toys available in the market, don’t underestimate the value of cardboard for your rabbit’s life.

Spending time arranging and customizing cardboard boxes into tunnels, hideouts, and even puzzle toys will create a fun and stimulating environment for your pet rabbit.

In conclusion, incorporating cardboard boxes into your rabbit’s enclosure and chewing activities is a simple yet effective way to provide mental stimulation, exercise, and a safe chewing material.

However, always ensure that the cardboard you use is plain and free from harmful additives.

Why Rabbits Chew On Things

Rabbits have a natural instinct to chew on various items, and this behavior serves several purposes. One of the primary reasons is to maintain their constantly growing teeth.

Chewing on items helps rabbits wear down their teeth, preventing overgrowth and dental issues.

In addition to dental health, chewing offers mental stimulation for rabbits. They are curious animals that need to explore and interact with their environment to stay happy and healthy.

Chewing provides a way for rabbits to investigate new objects and textures, and it can help prevent boredom.

Moreover, rabbits are known for their digging instincts which are deeply rooted in their behavior.

Chewing is an extension of this instinct, giving them an opportunity to reshape their surroundings and create hiding spots or burrows, even if they may be living indoors, fulfilling this innate desire to dig and make alterations to their environment.

To provide a safe environment for your rabbit and prevent them from chewing on harmful objects, it is essential to offer them chew toys, untreated wood, or cardboard, which can satisfy their natural instincts without posing any risks.

Chewing on cardboard can be safe for rabbits, as long as it is free from any toxic elements, like glue, ink, or plastic.

Cardboard is typically a safe option for rabbits to play with and chew on while providing them the needed mental stimulation.

It’s important to monitor your rabbit’s behavior and make sure they are not ingesting large amounts of cardboard.

Consuming too much cardboard can lead to gastrointestinal issues, so providing a variety of chewable objects, like wooden toys and hay, is recommended to maintain a balanced and engaging environment.

In conclusion, allowing rabbits to chew on things like cardboard is a natural and beneficial behavior that contributes to their overall physical and mental well-being.

Proper supervision, the provision of safe chewing materials, and a range of activities in their environment will help keep your rabbit happy and healthy.

Cardboard Safety Considerations

When introducing cardboard to your rabbits, you need to consider a few safety factors to ensure their health and well-being.

Just like trimming your rabbit’s nails needs careful attention, the types and quality of cardboard used play a crucial role in maintaining their safety.

Firstly, ensure the cardboard is free of any harmful elements, such as ink and adhesives.

Some inks, glues, and adhesives can be toxic to rabbits, so choose plain cardboard without any colored print or stickers.

Be cautious of any coatings or chemicals on the cardboard as well, as they might be harmful to your rabbit.

Secondly, it is essential to check for any staples or other metal fastenings that could harm your rabbit.

If the cardboard has any, take the time to carefully remove them before offering it to your pet. This can prevent any possible injuries to your rabbit while they nibble, play, or hide in the cardboard.

In addition to these safety aspects, it’s a good idea to have a rabbit first aid kit on hand in case of any accidents or emergencies involving your rabbit and their environment.

Providing a safe and enjoyable environment for your rabbits is important for their overall health and happiness.

By taking these safety considerations into account when offering cardboard to your rabbits, you can ensure they can safely enjoy this natural form of enrichment and entertainment without putting their health at risk.

Health Concerns of Cardboard Consumption

Cardboard consumption can pose some health concerns for your rabbit. While it’s true that rabbits love to chew on various materials, consuming too much cardboard can lead to various digestive problems.

Cardboard is not easily broken down in the rabbit’s digestive system, and it is essential to monitor their intake.

One issue that can occur if your rabbit ingests too much cardboard is an upset stomach or even an intestinal blockage.

If a blockage occurs, it can lead to serious complications in your rabbit’s health, and they might display symptoms such as lethargy and discomfort.

Familiarizing yourself with signs of illness in rabbits can help you act quickly if you notice any changes in their behavior.

Remember, rabbits have a delicate digestive system, and providing a balanced diet should be your priority.

Toilet paper or paper towels might seem like an attractive alternative for your rabbit to chew on, but they can pose similar health risks as cardboard.

Like cardboard, these materials are not intended for consumption and can cause digestive issues if ingested in large quantities.

It’s important to understand that choking hazards might also occur if your rabbit tries to consume small pieces of cardboard.

Small cardboard fragments can become lodged in your rabbit’s throat, leading to choking or airway obstruction.

To ensure that your rabbit’s digestive health remains optimal, plus monitor the consistency and appearance of their droppings.

Every healthy rabbit has different but consistent stool patterns, and any change in color, shape, or frequency can indicate a problem. If you observe any abnormalities, it’s crucial to consult with a veterinarian promptly.

In conclusion, while providing cardboard boxes as a source of entertainment and chewing material for your rabbit can be safe in moderation, it is vital to pay close attention to their cardboard consumption.

Monitoring their behavior, diet, and droppings can help you prevent any potential health concerns caused by ingesting large amounts of cardboard.

Inherent Risks with Different Types of Cardboard

When it comes to rabbits and cardboard, some concerns arise about the risks involved. The types of cardboard can vary, and these differences can create potential hazards for your furry friend.

One major concern is the ink and printed materials found on some cardboard boxes. Many boxes contain logos, labels, or other designs made with ink or dyes.

It’s important to ensure that these elements are safe for your rabbit to chew on since some inks and dyes can be toxic.

Another aspect to consider is the fiber content of the cardboard. Most cardboard is made from recycled materials, which are generally safe for rabbits to chew on.

However, some boxes may contain fibers from non-rabbit-friendly sources, so it’s a good idea to inspect the composition of a box before introducing it to your rabbit.

You should also be cautious with colored cardboard. While it may add fun variety to your rabbit’s environment, the dyes used in colored cardboard might not always be safe.

It’s best to stick with plain, untreated cardboard for your rabbit to chew and play with.

Different types of cardboard might also have adhesives, labels, or other additives that can pose risks to your rabbit.

For example, some boxes have labels containing adhesive that could be harmful if ingested. Be sure to carefully remove these elements before giving a cardboard box to your rabbit.

Lastly, contamination is a concern with cardboard. Boxes can be exposed to a variety of substances during their lifespan, from chemicals to bacteria.

Make sure you only use clean, fresh cardboard for your rabbit’s environment, and avoid using boxes that appear dirty, stained, or damaged.

In conclusion, it’s essential to pay attention to the type of cardboard you use in your rabbit’s habitat.

By following these guidelines, you can ensure that you provide safe and enjoyable surroundings for your beloved pet.

Benefits and Disadvantages of Cardboard for Bunnies

Rabbits are known for their incessant need to chew, which is necessary to maintain their dental health.

As a rabbit owner, providing safe and appropriate chew materials is important to keep your bunny happy and healthy.

Cardboard is a popular choice among rabbit keepers, but it comes with its benefits and drawbacks.

One of the primary benefits of using cardboard as a chew material for your bunny is that it helps to keep their teeth trimmed.

Rabbits’ teeth grow continuously throughout their lives, and they need to chew on materials to help grind down their teeth. Cardboard provides a suitable texture for this purpose, promoting dental health.

Another advantage of cardboard is that it’s affordable and easy to obtain.

Cardboard boxes can be found in most homes as packaging material, making it an inexpensive option compared to purchasing specialized rabbit toys.

Not only does this save money, but it also allows you to provide your rabbit with a new cardboard box regularly, alleviating boredom and ensuring the cardboard remains clean and safe to use.

However, there are some disadvantages to using cardboard for your rabbit as well. Cardboard is not nutritionally beneficial for your rabbit.

Rabbits need a diet rich in hay, vegetables, and pellets to maintain their health, and chewing on cardboard does not supply any necessary nutrients.

It’s essential that your rabbit’s primary diet consists of high-quality hay and other appropriate foods.

While ingesting small amounts of cardboard is generally safe for rabbits, excessive consumption can lead to digestive issues.

If your rabbit starts to prioritize cardboard over hay and other foods, it can lead to a lack of fiber in their diet, which is essential for maintaining their digestive system’s health.

Therefore, it’s essential to monitor your rabbit’s intake of cardboard and ensure it doesn’t interfere with their regular diet.

Toilet paper rolls are another form of cardboard that some rabbit owners provide. However, it’s important to make sure that your rabbit doesn’t chew on toilet paper rolls with ink or glue, as these substances can be toxic and harmful to your rabbit’s health.

In conclusion, using cardboard as a chew material for your rabbit has its benefits and disadvantages.

Providing your rabbit with cardboard can promote dental health and mental stimulation, but it’s crucial to monitor their chewing activity and ensure it doesn’t negatively impact their nutrition and overall health.

Always prioritize a well-rounded diet and provide your rabbit with safe chew materials to ensure they stay happy and healthy.

Advice for Pet Owners

As a pet owner, it’s essential to understand that rabbits have a natural tendency to chew on various materials, including cardboard.

While cardboard is generally safe for pet rabbits to chew on, it is still vital to monitor your rabbit’s chewing habits and provide alternatives for their well-being.

Chewing cardboard can help wear down your rabbit’s constantly growing teeth, but moderation and supervision are key.

If you notice that your rabbit is excessively chewing on cardboard, it could be an indication that they require more stimulation and activities.

To prevent overconsumption of cardboard and provide more engaging options for your rabbit, consider offering them safe toys or introducing more enriching activities in their environment.

Rabbits can chew cardboard without causing significant harm, but they should not consume large amounts, as this could lead to digestive issues.

As a responsible pet owner, always supervise your rabbit while they are chewing on cardboard and remove any parts that appear to be ingested.

If you’re unsure whether a specific type of cardboard or other materials are safe for your rabbit, it’s best to consult with a veterinarian. They can provide expert advice on safe chewable materials, suitable toys, and how to maintain your rabbit’s dental health.

Establishing a strong bond with your pet rabbit is essential; this can be achieved by interacting with them often and understanding their needs.

A happy and healthy rabbit is more likely to engage in appropriate activities rather than destructive chewing. Keep in mind that rabbits require regular exercise and mental stimulation to avoid developing undesirable behaviors.

If you’re still contemplating whether a rabbit is the right pet for you, it’s essential to consider the level of commitment and care required.

Rabbits are intelligent, social animals that need attention, exercise, and a healthy diet to thrive. Ensure you have a clear understanding of the responsibilities involved before bringing a rabbit into your home.

In conclusion, while it’s generally safe for rabbits to chew on cardboard, it’s crucial to take a proactive approach in monitoring and managing this behavior.

Provide safe, engaging alternatives and work closely with your vet to ensure your rabbit remains healthy and happy.

Maintaining Rabbit’s Dietary Balance

When taking care of your rabbit’s diet, it’s essential to ensure that they receive proper nutrition, including hay, dietary fiber, vitamins, and minerals.

Hay constitutes the main portion of a rabbit’s diet and aids in maintaining their dental and digestive health. Providing ample amounts of good-quality hay, such as timothy hay, ensures your rabbit gets sufficient fiber.

Rabbits can also consume natural plants and grasses, which provide them with essential nutrients and vitamins.

Be careful to make sure the plants are safe for your rabbit and not treated with chemicals or pesticides.

Including leafy greens and vegetables in their diet helps keep their nutrition balanced and supports overall health.

We understand that you may have concerns about providing cardboard to your rabbit. Cardboard and toilet paper rolls, made of cellulose, can help wear down your rabbit’s teeth and prevent overgrowth under supervision.

While it’s not a primary dietary source, rabbits may munch on cardboard occasionally. However, make sure your rabbit consumes only small, manageable quantities that don’t impede their diet, as it shouldn’t replace hay or other essential food items.

In conclusion, maintaining a balanced diet for your rabbit is key to their overall health and wellbeing.

Ensuring they consume ample hay, fiber, vitamins, and minerals through a mix of natural plants and grasses and carefully monitored inclusion of cardboard will keep your rabbit healthy and happy.

DIY Cardboard Chew Toys

Cardboard can be a safe and budget-friendly option for creating chew toys for your rabbit. It’s essential to avoid any cardboard with inks, glues, or other potentially harmful substances.

Plain, untreated cardboard, like what you’d find in a standard shipping box, is a great option for rabbit chew toys.

To get started, try making a cardboard tube stuffed with hay. You can use the inner cardboard rolls from toilet or kitchen rolls, as long as they don’t have any leftover adhesive.

Fill the tubes with hay, your rabbit’s favorite treat, and watch as they enjoy digging in and nibbling on their new toy.

Another simple idea is to create a cardboard puzzle toy. Cut various shapes like triangles or circles out of a flat piece of cardboard and arrange them in layers.

Hide treats between the layers, encouraging your rabbit to chew and explore until they discover the hidden goodies.

This will not only provide them with a tasty reward but also stimulate their natural curiosity and problem-solving abilities.

You can also create a cardboard hideaway for your rabbit by using a large cardboard box. Cut out doors and windows, and add ramps or platforms if you’re feeling crafty.

Place this DIY hideaway in your rabbit’s living space, and they’ll love exploring their new fortress.

Remember, a rabbit’s natural instinct is to chew, so providing them with appropriate toys made of safe materials like cardboard will help keep their teeth trim and healthy.

Regularly replacing and rotating these chew toys will ensure that your rabbit remains engaged and avoids destructive behaviors, like chewing on furniture or electrical cords.

So grab some cardboard and get creative, your rabbit will surely appreciate your efforts!

Possible Health Consequences of Excessive Cardboard Eating

While cardboard is generally considered safe for rabbits to nibble on, excessive ingestion may lead to potential health issues.

One concern is the impact on their digestive system.

Rabbits need a diet high in fiber to maintain healthy digestion, and ingesting too much cardboard can reduce the amount of fiber-rich hay and fresh vegetables your rabbit consumes.

Another potential issue is intestinal blockage. Cardboard isn’t easily digestible, and if your rabbit consumes large amounts, it could lead to a blockage in their intestines.

This can be painful and, in severe cases, life-threatening, requiring immediate veterinary attention. Be sure to monitor your rabbit’s cardboard intake and look out for signs of digestive issues.

Rabbits may also mistakenly ingest items attached to the cardboard, such as plastic tape or stickers.

These foreign objects can pose choking hazards or contribute to intestinal blockage. To avoid such risks, remove any plastic materials before offering cardboard to your rabbit.

In terms of nutritional value, cardboard has none – it’s simply void of any important nutrients your rabbit needs for a well-balanced diet.

Overconsumption of cardboard can lead to malnutrition, as your rabbit may eat less hay and veggies to accommodate their cardboard cravings.

Lastly, there’s the risk of poisoning. While cardboard on its own is generally safe, certain types might be treated with chemicals or contaminated with potentially harmful substances.

To minimize this risk, stick to plain, untreated cardboard, such as brown corrugated boxes, and avoid any with printed ink or glossy surfaces.

In conclusion, while cardboard can provide a safe and fun distraction for your rabbit, it’s essential to monitor their intake and ensure it doesn’t become a staple in their diet.

Prioritize fiber-rich foods and always be vigilant for signs of health issues related to excessive cardboard ingestion.

How to Clean Up Cardboard Mess

Cardboard can be a great material for your rabbit to chew on and play with, as it helps to alleviate boredom and provides a good source of dietary fiber.

However, it can also create quite a mess in your home. In this section, we will discuss cleaning up the cardboard mess your rabbit may leave behind.

One way to control the mess is by selecting the right types of cardboard for your rabbit to play with.

Avoid cardboards with bright colors or chemical treatment, as these may be harmful to your rabbit’s health.

Choose plain cardboard boxes or tubes, such as those used for holding newspapers, as these are usually safer and less messy.

When cleaning up the mess, it’s essential to be gentle and patient. Avoid scolding your rabbit, as they are naturally curious animals.

Instead, encourage them to play with the cardboard in designated areas in your home, such as rabbit-safe play areas. This will help to limit the mess and make it easier to clean up.

After your rabbit has had their fun, it’s time to clean up the aftermath. Keep a close eye on the size and location of the cardboard pieces to ensure none are hidden and left to cause unexpected messes.

Start by using a soft brush or broom to sweep up the larger cardboard pieces and any surrounding hay or bedding.

You can then use a vacuum cleaner to remove any remaining debris, making sure to get into any corners or crevices.

If you find your rabbit has a particular spot they like to play with cardboard, you could place a plastic or washable mat beneath the area to catch any mess.

This will make the cleanup process more straightforward, as you can simply shake off or wipe clean the mat when it’s time to tidy up.

In summary, always be mindful of the types of cardboard boxes or tubes you provide for your rabbit, and take the necessary steps to clean up any mess they create.

Set designated play areas and use washable materials like mats to control the debris, ensuring a clean and happy environment for both you and your rabbit.

Reviewing Alternatives to Cardboard

While cardboard can serve as an inexpensive and easily accessible option for your rabbit to chew on and play with, it’s important to consider other safe alternatives to ensure your bunny’s overall well-being.

Offering a variety of safe materials can keep your rabbit happy and engaged while also maintaining their dental health.

Wooden toys and chew sticks are excellent alternatives to cardboard. Choose toys made from untreated, pesticide-free wood such as apple, willow, and aspen.

These options can help keep your rabbit’s teeth trimmed while providing them with an engaging and satisfying chewing experience.

Make sure to avoid wood from cherry, peach, apricot, or plum trees, as these can be toxic to rabbits.

Another safe option for your rabbit is hay-based toys. Hay is a natural and essential part of a rabbit’s diet, so providing toys that incorporate hay not only encourages play but also contributes to their nutritional needs.

You can find a variety of hay-based toys in pet stores, including braided haysticks, hay balls, and other hay-based structures that offer both physical and mental stimulation.

Paper-based items such as brown paper bags, non-toxic tissue paper, and crumpled paper can also provide your rabbit with a safe, engaging alternative to cardboard.

These materials can be easily torn and shredded, making for a fun and satisfying activity for your rabbit. Just remember to avoid anything with ink or glossy surfaces.

Finally, sisal-rope toys and untreated sea grass mats are also safe for rabbits and can offer entertainment and enrichment.

These natural materials are durable and can help keep your rabbit’s teeth in good shape while providing plenty of opportunities for play and exploration.

By offering a variety of safe alternatives to cardboard, you can ensure that your rabbit remains engaged and entertained while also promoting their dental and overall health.


After examining the safety of rabbits eating cardboard, it’s clear that, in moderation, cardboard can be a harmless and even beneficial addition to your rabbit’s environment.

Cardboard boxes provide a great source of enrichment for your rabbit, allowing them to practice their natural behaviors of chewing and scratching.

While you can confidently provide your rabbit with cardboard, you should ensure that the cardboard is free from any harmful chemicals, inks, or adhesives.

Opt for plain brown cardboard without any glossy coating or printing, as it is generally safer for your rabbit to chew on. Furthermore, always supervise your rabbit when introducing new items into their environment to guarantee their safety.

Chewing on cardboard can be helpful for your rabbit’s dental health as well, as their teeth continuously grow throughout their life, and chewing helps to keep them properly trimmed.

It’s important to remember, however, that cardboard should never replace hay, which is the main component of a rabbit’s diet and offers the necessary fiber for proper digestive functioning.

In conclusion, cardboard can be an inexpensive and safe enrichment item for your rabbit when used correctly.

Just make sure to monitor their interaction with the material and ensure that cardboard doesn’t become the primary focus of their diet, overshadowing essential nutrients like hay and vegetables.


Can rabbits eat cardboard?

Yes, rabbits can eat cardboard. In fact, cardboard can provide a safe and affordable way for rabbits to fulfill their natural chewing instincts. Chewing provides essential physical stimulation for rabbits, and cardboard is a suitable option. Just make sure the cardboard is clean and free of any harmful chemicals, inks, or adhesives.

Are all types of cardboard safe for rabbits?

Not all types of cardboard are safe for rabbits. It’s essential to ensure the cardboard you provide to your rabbit does not contain any toxic inks, adhesives, or chemicals. Typically, plain, untreated cardboard is best. Avoid giving your rabbit cardboard that has glossy prints or plastic coatings, as these materials can be harmful if ingested.

Do rabbits need other items to chew on besides cardboard?

While cardboard can be a good chewing option for rabbits, it’s important to also provide other safe chewable materials to your pets. This can include hay, which is an essential part of a rabbit’s diet, or other safe toys and chewing materials available from pet stores. Paper products, such as paper towel and toilet paper rolls, can also serve as safe distractions that are suitable for chewing.

What other ways can I provide my rabbit with environmental enrichment?

In addition to providing safe, chewable objects like cardboard, there are other ways to give your rabbit environmental enrichment. Create a stimulating environment by providing your pet rabbit with hiding places like a cardboard box with multiple holes cut into it. This type of enclosure allows your rabbit to feel safe and secure. You can also introduce a variety of rabbit-safe toys, tunnels, and climbing structures to keep your pet engaged and active.

How should I monitor my rabbit’s chewing habits?

It’s essential to keep an eye on your rabbit’s chewing habits to ensure they’re not ingesting dangerous amounts of indigestible materials. When providing your rabbit with cardboard or other chewing materials, regularly check for excessive consumption or signs of digestive issues. If you notice any changes in your rabbit’s behavior or health, consult with your veterinarian for guidance.

Maurice Alice

Dr. Maurice Alice is a veterinary expert with over 10 years of experience in exotic animal medicine, specializing in dental care for rabbits and rodents. He is dedicated to providing exceptional care for his patients and is passionate about promoting animal welfare.

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